Jewish revolt against he Romans.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136; Hebrew: מרד
or mered bar kokhba) against the Roman Empire
was the third major rebellion by the Jews of
Iudaea Province (also spelled Judaea) and the
last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba,
the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as
a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore
Israel. The revolt established an independent
state of Israel over parts of Judea for over
two years, but a Roman army of 12 legions with
auxiliaries finally crushed it. The Romans then
barred Jews from Jerusalem, except to attend
Tisha B'Av. Jewish Christians hailed Jesus as
the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba.
They were barred from Jerusalem along with the
rest of the Jews. The war and its aftermath
helped differentiate Christianity as a religion
distinct from Judaism, see also List of events
in early Christianity. The revolt is also known
as The Second Jewish-Roman War, The Second Jewish
Revolt, The Third Jewish-Roman War or The Third
Jewish Revolt (counting the Kitos War, 115 -
117, as second).
After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in the
year 70, the Roman authorities took measures
to suppress the rebellious province. Instead
of a procurator, they installed a praetor as
a governor and stationed an entire legion, the
X Fretensis. Because the Revolt had resulted
in the destruction of Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin
at Yavne provided spiritual guidance for the
Jewish nation, both in Judea and throughout
the Jewish diaspora.
In 130, Emperor Hadrian visited the ruins of
Jerusalem. At first sympathetic towards the
Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the city,
but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out
that his intentions were to rebuild the Jewish
holiest city as a Roman metropolis, and a new
temple upon the ruins of the Second Temple,
which was to be dedicated to Jupiter.
An additional legion, the VI Ferrata, was stationed
in the province to maintain order, and the works
commenced in 131 after the governor of Judaea
Tineius Rufus performed the foundation ceremony
of Aelia Capitolina, the city’s projected new
name. "Ploughing up the Temple" was
a religious offence that turned many Jews against
the Roman authorities. The tensions grew higher
when Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah),
which he, a Hellenist, viewed as mutilation.
A Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was
issued in 132.